The scheme of electromechanical control of the antenna provides scanning of the antenna in an azimuth and combination of an axis of the directional pattern with the horizon plane (or the set plane) at a list and pitch of the plane on the channel of an inclination.
The system of RLS can be considered as the radar channel like radio channels of communication or telemetry. The main components of RLS are the transmitter, the receiver, the scanner, the terminal.
Attenuation of radio waves in the atmosphere is caused by absorption of their energy free molecules of oxygen and water vapor, and also the weighed particles – motes and drops of water. Besides, there is a dispersion of radio waves liquid and firm particles which cause the effect similar to energy absorption.
In the ranges of centimetric and especially millimetric waves intensive absorption of electromagnetic oscillations causes undesirable reduction of range of action of station. Besides, hydrometeors in these ranges can be a source of the intensive reflection which is complicating and completely excluding supervision is more whole.
The RLS synchronizer develops periodic sequence of impulses with the period Tn=3,6 10-3 which influence at the same time (or with some continuous delay) the modulator, the generator of development of range and the generator of large-scale impulses. The pulse modulator develops the modulating videopulses lasting tu=1,7 10-6 influencing the microwave oven generator. The last develops radio impulses of approximately same duration.
Systematic mistakes at measurement of an azimuth can arise at inexact orientation of antenna system of RLS and owing to discrepancy between position of the antenna and a large-scale electric scale of an azimuth.
The mechanism of formation of the image on the ELT screen is described below. At rotation of the antenna when the edge of the directional pattern coincides with the direction on the purpose, on the answering development radius under the influence of an impulse to the purpose there is a bright point. Besides, there is a series of bright ekvidistantny points under the influence of large-scale impulses. Rotation of the antenna clockwise equivalently to movement of the purpose in the opposite direction. After a complete revolution of the antenna on the screen large-scale rings (an electronic scale of range) are formed, and the purpose will have an appearance of a small arch which angular sizes are approximately equal to the angular width of a beam of the antenna.
The RLS antenna has the fanlike directional pattern, that is narrow in the horizontal plane (width in some degrees or q=3 degree share, and rather wide (tens degrees of Dbobz=35 in the vertical plane. At rotation such antenna provides not only the demanded review in the vertical and horizontal planes, but also measurement of an azimuth.